In the "Adventuring with Boldness", the author, Bruce Paton, took us back in time to America's wild wild west and the Arctic region in 19 century, where there were uncharted regions with vast area of desert and wasteland, sub zero frozen mountain, treacherous water, horrendous barren, places that tested humans endurance and determination to the hilt. The exhaustion and starvation are constant companions for courageous explorers, and sometimes food is so scarce that cannibalism was unavoidable for survival.
Now that we are in a civilized twenty first century, everything is handed down to us in a golden platter. We have all the amenities of money can buy, most of the land or water has been mapped out, but behind all these achievement there were stories of human suffering, utter most endurance of harsh environment, and sheer determination to explore the vast land. Some did it for fame and fortune, others for pure human spirit of discovery and adventure.
As far as cannibalism, the thought of it is inconceivable for us sitting comfortably at home surrounded with plentiful of food and entertainment. But out there in the barren desert and freezing mountain where there are no hope of getting any food supply, cannibalism is the final and probably the only means of sustenance. The author indicated that in animal world, cannibalism is common and natural, there is no morality attached to the act. But for human, the survivors of cannibalism experienced profound psychological effect that are deep and long lasting. Often the sense of guilt, remorse and horror lingered for life. That goes to say that survival is the strongest instinct in animal kingdom including us human. Yes, society may condemn the act of cannibalism, but walked with those explorer's moccasin, we might do the same at the circumstances.